تاثیر نهادهای حکمرانی بر مهاجرت بین المللی نیروی کار ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد برنامه‌ریزی سیستم‌های اقتصادی و کارشناس مرکز تحقیقات اقتصاد اسلامی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 استاد و عضو هیأت علمی دانشکده علوم اقتصادی و سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

از آن‌جا که نیروی کار یکی از مهمترین عوامل تولید است و خروج آن از کشور متضمن هزینه فرصت اقتصادی برای جامعه خواهد بود، در این مطالعه تلاش شده است تاثیر نهادهای حکمرانی و عوامل اقتصادی مؤثر بر مهاجرت نیروی کار ایران طی سال‌های 2002 تا 2012 مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. در بررسی مساله از مبانی نظری الگوی جاذبه و روش تخمین داده‌های تابلویی استفاده شده و در تخمین روابط از نرم افزار استتا بهره گرفته شده است. در این مطالعه، مهاجرت نیروی کار از ایران به 8 کشور از اعضای OECD که بیشترین سهم از مهاجرت نیروی کار ایرانی را داشته‌اند، بررسی شده است. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن است که بهبود شاخص حکمرانی کل و زیر شاخص‌های آن شامل ثبات سیاسی، بار مالی مقررات، حاکمیت قانون و کنترل فساد در کشورهای مقصد عامل جاذبه و کاهش این شاخص‌ها یا به عبارتی دیگر پایین بودن کیفیت نهادها در ایران عامل دافعه‌ی مهاجرت نیروی کار ایران شناخته شده‌اند و بالعکس. ضمناً اثر شاخص کارایی و اثر بخشی دولت معنادار نبوده و همچنین شاخص حق اظهار نظر و پاسخ‌گویی بر مهاجرت اثر منفی دارد. بر این اساس، بهبود نهادهای حکمرانی در ایران می‌تواند نقش اساسی در کاهش مهاجرت داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Governance Institutions on International Migration of Iranian Workforce

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Mostafazadeh 1
  • Aliakbar Arabmazar 2
1 MA in Economic Systems Planning, Shahid Beheshti University
2 Professor, Faculty of Economics and Political Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

Workforce is one of the most important production factors, and, hence, its migration damages economic opportunities in the society. In this article, we examine the impact of governance institutions and economic factors on the migration of labor force from Iran between 2002 and 2012. In our study, we use theoretical foundations of the attraction pattern, and the estimation of relationships is done by the STATA software. We have surveyed the immigration of Iranian workforce to certain OECD countries that have the largest workforce share from Iran. The results of this study show that improvement of total governance index and its sub-indices including political stability, financial regulations, rule of law, and control of corruption in destination countries are the attraction factors. However, the lower quality of these indicators in Iran is the most important factor in exclusion of Iran's labor force through immigration. Furthermore, the effect of the performance indicators and the government effectiveness is not significant, and the rights of expression and responsiveness have negative effects on immigration. On this basis, the improvement of governance institutions in Iran can have an essential role in reducing immigration.             

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Governance institutions
  • International migration
  • Economic agents of migration
  • Workforce management
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