عوامل فردی مؤثر بر امنیت تغذیه خانوارهای مناطق شهری ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد علوم اقتصادی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

2 استادیار گروه اقتصاد نظری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

10.29252/epj.2022.15927.2168

چکیده

هدف نظام تغذیه‌ای این است که هر فرد غذای سالم، کافی و متناسب با ترجیحات خود را به‌طور بادوام دریافت کند. برآورده نشدن این هدف مانعی جدی در راه تحقق اهداف سلامت در سطح فرد و جامعه است. این‌جا است که ارزیابی وضعیت غذایی خانوارها و شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر امنیت غذا و تغذیه آن‌ها اهمیت پیدا می‌کند. در مطالعه حاضر، این کار در مورد خانوارهای شهری ایران با تأکید بر شناسایی عوامل فردی مؤثر بر امنیت تغذیه آن‌ها انجام شده است. به‌طور ویژه می‌خواهیم بدانیم که متغیرهای بعد خانوار، تأهل سرپرست خانوار و سطح تحصیلات او چه نقشی در امنیت تغذیه‌ای خانوار دارد. بدین منظور اطلاعات مربوط به 18809 خانوار در سال 1395 بررسی شد و از مدل لاجیت برای شناسایی عوامل فردی مؤثر بر امنیت تغذیه خانوارها بهره برده‌ شد. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که 82 درصد خانوارها در بیش از 7 گروه (ناامنی تغذیه‌ای متوسط) و 45 درصد خانوارها در بیش از 10 گروه (ناامنی تغذیه‌ای شدید) از 14 گروه غذایی، دچار کم‌مصرفی هستند. متغیرهای درآمد سرانه سالانه خانوار، نسبت بار تکفل در خانوار و بعد خانوار به عنوان موثرترین عوامل مؤثر بر امنیت تغذیه خانوار شناسایی شده‌اند. وضعیت تأهل سرپرست خانوار و مالکیت منزل شخصی در مرتبه‌‌های بعدی اثرگذاری قرار دارند. اثر سن و تحصیلات بر امنیت تغذیه‌ای نیز تأیید می‌شود. اگرچه هزینه سرانه سالانه غذا در خانوارهای با سرپرست متأهل کم‌تر است اما در وضعیت امن‌تری قرار دارند. به نظر می‌رسد تأهل بر کیفیت و الگوی غذایی سفره خانوار اثر مثبت دارد. پژوهش‌های اندکی اثر افزایش تحصیلات بر امنیت تغذیه را مخرب نشان می‌دهند. این پژوهش یکی از آن‌ها است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Individual factors affecting the nutrition security of households in the urban areas of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Soroush Afkhami Aqda 1
  • Ali Asghar Salem 2
  • Javad Taherpour 2
1 Master, Economics, Allameh Tabataba’I University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Economics, Allameh Tabataba’I University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The goal of a food and nutrition (FN) system is to provide continuously everybody with adequate healthy food consistent with their preferences. Failure to achieve this goal is a major obstacle to attain individual and social development goals. Then, it is a matter of importance to examine the FN status of households and identify the factors affecting their FN status. This research is conducted to identify the individual factors (especially size of the household, household head education and his marital status) affecting the nutrition security of households in urban areas of Iran. Food security is defined as the availability and the access of food to all people, whereas nutrition security demands the intake of a wide range of foods which provides the essential needed nutrients.
Methodology: We analyzed the data from a sample of 18809 households living in all the provinces in Iran in 2016. The data were collected by the Statistical Center of Iran through Household Expenditure and Income project. A nutrition insecurity index was defined based on the “suitable and preferable food basket for Iranian households”. There are 14 food groups required to meet essential micronutrient needs for human body. For each group a minimum standard level is determined. The household is moderately insecure if it is undernourished in more than seven food groups and severely insecure if it is undernourished in more than 10 food groups. The insecure status of a household is denoted by 1 and its secure status is marked by 0. As the regressor takes two values (0 or 1), the Logit model is employed to run the empirical model.
Regressors are a variety of socio-economic variables. Through trial and error, we found seven factors determining the nutrition security of the households including annual per capita income of the household, house ownership status, age of household head, contribution ratio (ratio of the number of employed members to household size), marital status of the household head, the household head’s education, and household size (the number of members). Multicollinearity was also examined. In a logit model, F-statistic test is not suitable to identify multicollinearity. Therefore, we used partial correlation coefficients and VIF tests. 
Results and Discussion: The results showed that 82 percent of the households in more than seven groups (moderate nutrition insecurity) and 45 percent of the households in more than 10 groups (severe nutrition insecurity) out of 14 food groups were undernourished.
In case of moderate nutrition insecurity, all of the explanatory variables were significant at the level of 1 percent p-value, but, for household head education, it was significant at 10 percent. Also, all the variables explained the severe nutrition insecurity at the level of 1 percent.
The marginal effects of the determining factors were also calculated. The annual per capita income, the contribution rate and the size of the household were known as the most effective determinants of nutrition security of the household. The marital status of the household head and house ownership came next. Household age and education were slightly effective as well. The households with married heads were more nutrition secure although their annual per capita expenditure on food was less than those with single heads. Marriage seems to have a positive effect on the household food standards and quality.
Few researches have met the fact that education has negative effect on nutrition security. This research is one of them. The households in which the heads are of higher education level, in our sample, had higher annual per capita incomes, higher annual per capita food expenditures, bigger sizes and smaller contribution ratios. It seems that although higher education level increases the quantity of food consumption, it fails to make the quality of it better..
All the partial correlation coefficients of the explanatory variables were significant at 5 percent (except for contribution ratio and house ownership, which was insignificant). But the biggest coefficient was 45 percent, so small that we could say there was no sign of multicollinearity. Of course, it does not confirm the lack of multicollinearity. VIF also did not show any clue of multicollinearity. All the variable VIFs were between 1 and 2, much smaller than 10, which is alarming.
Conclusion: In search of the factors affecting the nutrition security of urban households in Iran, we raised questions about three variables including household size, household head’s marital status and his education level. Our data from 18809 households in all the provinces suggested the following:

As the household size grows bigger, the family becomes more nutrition insecure.
As the household head’s education level is higher, the family becomes more nutrition insecure.
Households with married heads are more nutrition secure. It seems that the nutrition standard and quality is better in these families although they spend less per capita food than households with single heads.

The other factors identified were the annual per capita income of household, house ownership status, age of household head, and contribution ratio.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Food security
  • Nutrition security
  • Individual factors
  • Full cell nourishment
Abedini Baltork, M. Asadnia, M. and Aghili, R. (2013). "The Status of Health Education in Iranian Elementary School Books". Health and Development Journal 1(4): 245-254 (In Persian).
Ahmadi Javid, M. Akbari, A. and Ziaei, M.B. (2014). "Pattern of Food Products Consumption in Urban Households of Sistan and Baluchistan Province with Emphasis on Food Security". Agricultural Economics Research 6(3): 143-158 (In Persian).
Arene, C.J. and Anyaeji, R.C. (2010). Determinants of Food Security among Households in Nsukka Metropolis of Enugu state, Nigeria, Pakistan". Journal of Social Science 30(1): 9-16.
Arvand, A. Dehghani, M. Omidvar, N. and Ashoori, M. (2019). "Food and Nutrition Literacy: A Neglected Aspect in High School Textbooks in Iran". Iranian Journal of Nutrition Science & Food Technology 13(4): 29-38 (In Persian).
Che, J. and Chen, J. (2001). "Health Report in Canadian Households". Minister of Industry 2(4): 11-22.
Dastgiri, S. Mahboob, S. Tutunchi, H. and Ostadrahimi, A. (2006). "Determinants of Food Insecurity: A Cross–Sectional Study in Tabriz". Journal of Ardabil University Medical Science 6(3): 233-239 (In Persian).
FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO (2017). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World.
Farhadian, A. Chan, V. SH. and Farhadian, H. (2015). "Addressing Household Food Insecurity using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) in a Poor Rural Community in Sabah, Malaysia". International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention 4(8): 89-100.
Food and Agriculture Organization (2006). Food Security, Policy Brief.
Food and Agriculture Organization (2008). An Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Food Security, Food Security Information for Actions: Practical Guides.
Gebre, G. G. (2012). "Determinants of Food Insecurity among Households in Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia". Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems 10(2): 159-173.
General Policies of Resistance Economy of Islamic Republic of Iran (2013).
Ghasemi, H. (2004). "Food and Nutrition Security and Future Challenges in the Country". Conference on Agriculture and National Development: 1022-1050 (In Persian).
Gross, R. Schoeneberger, H. Pfeifer, H. and Preuss, H. J. (2000). "The Four Dimensions of Food and Nutrition Security: Definitions and Concepts". SCN News 20(20): 5-20.
Gujarati, D. N. (2004). Basic Econometrics, The McGraw-Hill.
Hosseini, S. Pakravan-Charvadeh, M. and Salami, H. (2016). "The Effect of Subsidy Reform Program on Food Security in Iran". Iranian Journal of Economic Research 21(67): 53-82 (In Persian).
‏Iram, U. and Butt, M. S. (2004). "Determinants of Household Food Security: An Empirical Analysis for Pakistan". International Journal of Social Economics 31(8): 753-766.
Islamic Republic of Iran's 20-Year Vision Plan (2003) (In Persian).
Kalansooriya, C. W. Gunasekara, W. G. V. and Jayarathne, P. G. S. A. (2020). "Food Security in Urban Households: The Role of Women in an Asian Context". Economy 7(1): 11-18.
Kian, F. Farhadian, H. and Chobchian, S. (2015). "Food Insecurity Assess of Urban Household of Alborz Province". Journal of Food Science and Technology 13(55): 167-179 (In Persian).
Mango, N. Zamasiya, B. Makate, C. Nyikahadzoi, K. & Siziba, S. (2014). "Factors Influencing Household Food Security among Smallholder Farmers in the Mudzi District of Zimbabwe". Development Southern Africa 31(4): 625-640.
Mohammadzadeh, A. Dorosty Motlagh, A. and Eshraghian, M. (2010). "The Association of Food Security with Socio-Economic Factors and Weight Status among Adolescents". Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology 5(1): 55-62 (In Persian).
Motamedi, E. (2003). "School Books in Iran from the Establishment of Dar ul-Funun to the Islamic Revolution". Quarterly Journal of Institute for Iranian Contemporary Historical Studies 7(27): 111-138 (In Persian).
Nwaka, I. D. Saint Akadiri, S. and Uma, K. E. (2020). "Gender of the Family Head and Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Nigeria". African Journal of Economic and Management Studies 11(3): 381-402.
Omotayo, A. O. Ogunniyi, A. I. Tchereni, B. H. and Nkonki-Mandleni, B. (2018). "Understanding the Link between Households' Poverty and Food Security in South West Nigeria". The Journal of Developing Areas 52(3): 27-38.
Pakravan-Charvadeh, M. Hosseini, S. and Nori Naeini, S. (2020). "Determining Socio-economic Factors Associated with Household Food Security in Rural and Urban Areas in Khuzestan Province". Iranian Journal of Economic Research 25(83): 113-136 (In Persian).
Rostami, F. Shahmoradi, M. and Baghaei, S. (2014). "Factors Affecting on Rural Households Food Security (Case Study: Karnachy Village in Kermanshah County)". Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research 45(4): 725-737 (In Persian).
Safarpour, M. Dorosty Motlagh, A. Hosseini, S. Ranjbar Noshari, F. Safarpour, M. Daneshi Maskooni, M. Azizi, S. and Kashani, A. (2014). "Prevalence and Outcomes of Food Insecurity and Its relationship with Some Socioeconomic Factors". Knowledge and Health 8(4): 193-198 (In Persian).
Salehi, F. Abdollahi, Z. and Abdollahi, M. (2013). Appropriate Food Basket for Iranian People, Qom, Andishe Mandegar (In Persian).
Sharafkhani, R. Dastgiri, S. Gharaaghaji Asl, R. and Ghavamzadeh, S. (2012). "The Role of Household Structure on The Prevalence of Food Insecurity: A Cross Sectional Study in North West of Iran" Knowledge and Health 7(1): 27-31 (In Persian).
Smith, C. L. and Subandoro, A. (2007). Measuring Food Security Using Household Expenditure Surveys, Washington D.C, International Food Policy Research Institute.
Souri, A. (2013). Advanced Econometrics, Tehran, Farhang Shenasi Publications (In Persian).
Statistical Center of Iran (2017). Raw Data of Household Expenditure and Income in 2016.
Statistical Center of Iran (n d). Retrieved from Website.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran (1989).
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).
Venugopal, K. R. (1999). "Food Security vs. Nutrition Security". Health for the Millions 25(2): 18-19.
Ziaei, S. Shirani Bidabadi, F. Eshraghi, F. and Keramatzadeh, A. (2019). "Identification of Coping Strategies on Food Insecurity and its Effective Factors in Rural Areas of Gorgan". Agricultural Economics and Development 26(104): 47-69 (In Persian).